Slavery and child labor were traditions sanctioned by religions and other authorities. Some of the earliest evidence of male circumcision comes from Egypt around the year BC.
It is essential that doctors perform male circumcision only where this is demonstrably in the best interests of the child. Reaffirmed Feb 1. A male neonatal circumcision is neither a diagnostic procedure nor a treatment of a disease.
Several characteristics of neonatal circumcision pose particular challenges for the practice of informed consent. Obviously baby boys do not need such protection and can choose for themselves as consenting adults if they want a circumcision.
The practice of circumcision is thought to have been brought to the Bantu-speaking tribes of Africa by either the Jews after one of their many expulsions from European countries, or by Muslim Moors escaping after the conquest of Spain.
Found within the moral law are the Jewish Law, and the Christian Law for the sake of revive we will not mention other religious groups here. He realized what he was doing and stopped performing circumcisions. If you have your son circumcised, he may grow up to regret the decision you made for him, but circumcision is irreversible.
Provision of medically unnecessary, non-therapeutic circumcision may consume resources needed for the medically necessary treatment of other patients. When an uncircumcised penis is erect during intercourse, any small tears on the inner surface of the foreskin come into direct contact with the vaginal walls, providing a pathway for transmission.
While most infections are asymptomatic and are cleared by the immune systemsome types of the virus cause genital wartsand other types, if untreated, cause various forms of cancer, including cervical cancerand penile cancer. Circumcision is not an ordinary medical procedure, and the penis is not an ordinary body part; since valuations of the foreskin are subjective and vary from one individual to another, a boy might well decide that the risks of retaining the foreskin are outweighed by the benefits of having one.
Although it is not explicitly mentioned in the Quran early 7th century CEcircumcision is considered essential to Islam, and it is nearly universally performed among Muslims. A consent obtained without these prerequisites would lack validity.
Hodges and associates 45 propose the following requirements for ethical prophylactic medical interventions on children: A meta-analysis found a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with circumcision in black men.
On 27 Junethe Committee on Social Affairs, Health and Sustainable Development of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe issued a committee report on the need for protection of the physical integrity of children, which was published on 6 September Everyone has a right to bodily autonomy and self-determination.
Some people ask for non-therapeutic circumcision for religious reasons, some to incorporate a child into a community, and some want their sons to be like their fathers.
Most people would rather condemn the whistle-blower instead of examining their own behavior. It probably started among South American tribes as a blood sacrifice or ritual mutilation to test bravery and endurance, and its use later evolved into a rite of initiation.
Non-therapeutic circumcision of infants and children is offensive to this provision. Since there is no provable net benefit to the non-therapeutic circumcision of male children, then, it fails to conform to the principle of beneficence. In the United Kingdom and British Columbia the permission of both parents is required.
With a total adult surface area of cm2 [1, 2] and dense innervation, the foreskin is highly touch-sensitive tissue . No parent can grant consent for an act of battery.
Competent adult patients have full powers to consent to treatment, but proxies have limited powers. Beneficence Justice Autonomy Non-therapeutic circumcision of children by medical personnel must be measured against these four principles. Many men, who like their own fathers were circumcised as infants, think that their child in turn might as well be circumcised too.
Until such data become available, the circumcision debate cannot be brought to a satisfactory conclusion, and there will always be a lingering suspicion that the sometimes rather strident opposition to circumcision is partly driven by cultural prejudices, dressed up as ethical arguments.
The teaching that physical circumcision was unnecessary for membership in a divine covenant was instrumental in the separation of Christianity from Judaism.
Since children, and especially infants, are legally incompetent to grant informed consent for medical or surgical treatment, that consent must be granted by a surrogate — someone designated to act on behalf of the child-patient, if treatment is to occur.
If not in Iceland, at least in other countries— primarily, the USA —circumcision is regularly requested for non-religious reasons.Ethics of circumcision. Jump to navigation Jump to search.
Male circumcision is the surgical He argues that, to question the ethical acceptability of the practice, "we need to focus on child rights protection." Hellsten concludes, "Rather, with further education and knowledge the cultural smokescreen around the real reasons for the.
Circumcision, Ethics, and Medicine Circumcision violates the principles of medical ethics Like all professions, medicine has its own ethical code and principles of conduct. A group of doctors who oppose the practice of circumcision argue that the present Circumcision Policy Statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics compromises medical ethics in order to support the continued practice of male neonatal circumcision.
50 Price C. Male Circumcision: an ethical and legal affront. Bulletin of Medical. Is Routine Circumcision of Infants Ethical? History Of Circumcision: Reviewing the history Of circumcision and the many misguided reasons for its practice will help form an understanding of the multifaceted issues concerning routine infant circumcision.
Apr 22, · This raises important questions about the ethical significance (if any) of parents’ reasons. Further, just because a practice like circumcision is credited by some as having such a benefit IS NOT to say there aren’t easier less-destructive ways to garner the same or superior benefit (e.g.
condom use). Coptic Christians practice circumcision as a rite of passage. The Ethiopian Public health advocates of circumcision consider it to have a net benefit, and therefore feel that increasing the circumcision rate is an ethical killarney10mile.com: DDownload